Department of Oncotherapy - Szeged

6720 Szeged, Semmelweis u. 6..
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Director: Prof. László Vécsei

Final exam topics

34. Basic neurgenetics. (examples neurological diseases of genetic origin - AR, AD, X linked and mitochondrial)

35. Disturbances of brain stem circulation. Clinical syndromes. (major branches of vertebral and basilar artery: symptoms of PICA, AICA, ACS syndrome, basilar occlusion)

36. Sleep and its disturbances. (physiology of sleep, EEG, insomnias, parasomnias, hypersomnias)

37. Mechanisms of Parkinsonism, symptoms (mechanism of nigra destruction, , histological markers, major symptoms of Parkinsonism, other symptoms)

38. Treatment of Parkinsons disease. (drugs – mechanism of action – levodopa, DA agonist, MAO-B, COMT inhibitors, amantadine, anticholinerg agents, advantages, disadvantages, therapeutic strategy. Treatment of late Parkinsonism continuous levodopa substitution, DBS)

39. Most common Parkinson syndromes and neurodegenerative disorders associated with Parkinsonism. (drug-induced, vascular – characteristics of PSP, MSA, CBD, DLBD briefly)

40. Essential tremor. Wilsons disease, Huntington chorea, dystonia, myoclonus. (symptoms, causes, diagnostics, therapy)

41. Differentiation of ataxias. (spinal, cerebellar, frontal ataxia, most common causes, characteristics of Friedreich ataxia)

42. Brain tumors. Clinical symptoms. (types of brain tumors briefly – metastases, primary brain tumors, most common symptoms)

43. Symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. (causes, symptoms, herniations – subfalcine, transtentorial, foraminal)

44. Types of brain oedema, therapy. (cytotoxic, vasogenic, intersticial, osmotic, mechanism, treatment option)

45. Pituitary tumors. (types, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment)

46. Pontocerebellar laesions, vestibular schwannoma (causes, symptomatology – vestibular schwannoma: symptoms, diagnostics, therapy)

47. Traumatic injury of the CNS. (commotio cerebri, contusio cerebri, epidural, subdural and subarachnoidealis bleeding, spinal cord traumas, symptomatology of spinal cord transsection)

48. General symptoms of intervertebral disc disorders, symptoms and diagnostics of the most common disc herniations, indications of acute surgery. (symptomatology of root and spinal cord involvement, symptomatology of C5,6,7, 8 and L4,5,S1, diagnostic tools, indication of acute surgery, conus and cauda syndrome)

49. Classification of cerebrovascularis diseases, risk factors. (ischaemic and haemorrhagic conditions, definítions, risk factors)

50. Transient ischaemic attack. (definition, symptomatology – ICA, ACA, MCA, PCA, VB territory, diagnostic roundup, therapy)

51. Ischaemic stroke. (definition, symptomatology – ICA, ACA, MCA, PCA, VB territory, diagnostic roundup)

52. Intraparenchymal cerebral bleeding. (causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnostic tools, therapy, typical and atypical localisation, rarer causes)

53. Therapy of ischaemic stroke. (acute treatment: thrombolysis, thrombectomy – indications, contraindications, antiaggregation and anticoagulation in ischaemic stroke, importance of atrial fibrillation)

54. Sinus thrombosis. (anatomy of the venous system of the brain, sinus thrombosis: etiology, symptoms, diagnostics, treatment)

55. Subarachnoideal haemorrhage.(causes, types, symptoms, diagnostic approach, conservative and surgical treatment options)

56. ALS. Bulbar and pseudobulbar palsy. (ALS: epidemiolgy, patomechanism, symptoms, diagnostics, treatment options, bulbar and pseudobulbar palsy – definition, differentiation)

57. Myopathies. (symptoms, diagnostics, main causes of myopathies – toxic, metabolic, endocrine, inherited – Pompe and Fabry disease)

58. Myositis, muscle dystrophies. (main causes of myositis – immunological, infectious agent, Duchenne dystrophy, dystrophia myotonica)

59. Myasthenia syndrome. (Myasthenia gravis: epidemiology, pathomechanism, symptoms, diagnostics, therapy, myasthenic crisis, Lambert-Eaton syndrome)

60. Bacterial meningitis. (pathomechanism, most common causes, symptoms, diagnostics, treatment, meningitis basilaris tuberculosa, CSF results)

61. Viral meningitis. (pathomechanism, most common causes, symptoms, diagnostics, treatment, CSF results)

62. Encephalitis.(pathomechanism, most common causes, symptoms, diagnostics, treatment, herpes encephalitis, limbic encephalitis CSF results)

63. Slow manifesting neuroinfective disorders. (viral infections: SSPE, PML, Rubella, HIV encephalopathy, prions: CJD pathomechanism, symptoms, diagnostics)

64. Cerebral abscess. (pathomechanism, causes, symptoms, diagnostics, treatment options)

65. Herpes zooster. Treatment of neuropathic pain. (pathomechanism, causes, symptoms, diagnostics, treatment options, post herpetic neuralgia and neuropathic pain: treatment options)

66. Multiple sclerosis: pathomechanism, symptoms, diagnosis. (causes, symptoms, diagnostic criteria, disease activity follow up)

67. Multiple sclerosis: therapy. (treatment of the acute relapse, agents modifying disease activity: just the names of medications, symptomatic therapy: chronic pain, spasticity, fatigue, mood disorders, vegetative disorders, intention tremor, definition of primary progressive multiple sclerosis, therapy)

68. B12 vitamin deficiency (B12 vitamin in the metabolism, causes of deficiency, neurological complications, diagnostics, treatment)

69. Lues cerebrospinalis. Neuroborelliosis. (neurological complications of lues: meningitis, neurovascularis syphilis, tabes dorsalis, paralysis progressiva, borelliosis: clinical picture, neurological consequences)

70. Epileptic seizure. (definition, causes of seizures – provoked, withdrawal, epilepsy, classification of seizures, treatment)

71. Epilepsy: classification, diagnostics. (definition of epilepsy, epidemiology, etiology classification, diagnostic steps after an epileptic seizure)

72. Epilepsy: therapy. (classification of drugs by mechanism of action: Na+ channel blocker, GABA-ergic drugs , Ca++ channel blocker, Glutamate antagonists, other mechanism – few characteristics of the most important drugs in each group, general considerations of pharmacotherapy, pharmacoresistence, surgical approach)

73. Status epilepticus. (definition, forms, most common causes, diagnostic approach, treatment strategy)

74. Types of headache. (most common primary headaches, most common secondary headaches, red flag sings in headache patients)

75. Migraine and its pharmacotherapy. (definition, symptoms, pathomechanism, diagnostics, treatment of the acute attack, prophylactic therapy)

76. Cluster and tension type headache. Pathomechanism and therapy. (definition, symptoms, pathomechanism, diagnostics, treatment of the acute attack, prophylactic therapy)

77. Neurological complication of alcohol consumption. (acute intoxication, consequences of chronic consumption: delirium tremens, convulsion, Wernicke encephalopathy, Korsakoff syndrome, cerebral and cerebellar atrophy dementia, polyneuropathy, indirect consequences: traumas, hepatic encephalopathy, apoplexia)

78. Neurokognitive disorders, differentiation. Alzheimer disease, normal pressure hydrocephalus. (definition of dementia, classification by treatment options, Alzheimer disease – symptoms, cause, diagnostics, treatment, NPH: – symptoms, cause, diagnostics, treatment)

79. Guillain-Barré syndrome. (definition, symptoms, pathomechanism, diagnostics, treatment options, CSF results, Miller-Fisher variant)

80. Neurological complication of HIV. (HIV - direct effects: meningitis, myelopathy, neuropathy, myopathy, HIV encephalopathy, HIV caused immunodeficiency: infections, tumors)

81. Neuropathies. (definition, mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, symptoms of polyneuropathies, diagnostics, most common causes: DM, alcohol, nutritional, immunological)

82. Trigeminal neuralgia. (definition, symptoms, classification, pathomechanism, diagnostics, treatment options)

83. Mechanisms of neurodegeneration. (defintion, cellular mechanisms: the role of Ca++ , glutamate, energy depletion, michochondrial dysfunction, oxidative strees, inflammation, interconnections)

84. Cellular consequences of ischaemia. (neuronal metabolism, depletion of ATP, ion channels, glutamate IC Ca++, mitochondria, free radicals, inflammation)

85 Neurorehabilitation. (definition, types, its place in patient care, status, aims, rehabilitation program, efficacy)

86. Emergency neurology in practice I. (Most common neurological problems in the ER: alteration of consciousness, convulsions – diagnostic/therapeutic approach)

87. Emergency neurology in practice II. (Most common neurological problems in the ER: headache, vertigo diagnostic/therapeutic approach)